VOLUME III – December 2022
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Volume 2 – November 2021


This study is intended to investigate the interrelationship of student- in the private Hospitality and Tourism Higher Education in Cyprus. The researchers of this study formulated three main themes, especially sought to identify the qualities of a good teacher, positive relationship with a teacher, characteristics of caring academic demonstrate, and attributes of a good professor/lecturer. The purpose of this was to investigate the effects of student perceptions of their college teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors on student achievement and affective learning outcomes. Analyses were conducted in order to investigate the effects of differing student perceptions of their teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors. A qualitative approach was employed, whereby face-to-face and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 100 students in private tourism higher education in Cyprus. Using thematic analysis, the study concludes that it is imperative for teachers to develop positive academic relationships and establish close rapport with their students to facilitate the learning process.


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In recent years, there have been intense debates about the impacts of overtourism and unsustainable tourism development at tourism hotspots such as World Heritage Sites (WHS). However, the COVID-19 pandemic has upturned the debates surrounding overtourism to no-tourism. The economic impacts of the global pandemic have been devastating. Whilst there has been heavy emphasis on the impacts of the economic fallout on global tourism, there is limited attention on the social sustainability implications of the crisis. This paper argues that successful recovery from crisis events such as COVID-19 requires a grassroot-led strategy, wherein destination stakeholders’ stories and voices are given priority, to achieve socially sustainable tourism development in a WHS. Applying a qualitative methodology with a case-study approach, this paper adopts a destination-supply perspective to investigate social sustainability implications on destination stakeholders, in the UNESCO World Heritage Historic City of Melaka. Narratives from semi-structured interviews with destination stakeholders are analysed and a proposed approach for social sustainability at WHSs is presented.


Alvarez-Sousa, A., & Paniza Prados, J.L. (2020). Visitor management in world heritage destinations before and after Covid-19, Angkor. Sustainability, 12(23), 9929.

Aqueveque, C., & Bianchi, C. (2017). Tourism destination competitiveness of Chile: A stakeholder perspective. Tourism Planning & Development, 14(4), 447-466.

Aziz, R.A. (2017). Heritage conservation: Authenticity and vulnerability of living heritage sites in Melaka state. Kajian Malaysia, 35, 39-58.

Aziz, A. (2020). Melaka’s tourist footfall drops, thousands of bookings cancelled https://themalaysianreserve.com/2020/02/14/melakas-tourist-footfall-drops-thousands-of-bookings-cancelled/

Bideau, F.G., & Kilani, M. (2012). Multiculturalism, cosmopolitanism, and making heritage in Malaysia: A view from the historic cities of the Straits of Malacca. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 18(6), 605-623.

Brouder, P., Teoh, S., Salazar, N.B., Mostafanezhad, M., Pung, J.M., Lapointe, D., Higgins-Desbiolles, F., Haywood, M., Hall, C.M., & Balslev Clausen, H. (2020): Reflections and discussions: tourism matters in the new normal post COVID-19. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 735-746.

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Burlingame, K. (2019): Presence in affective heritagescapes: Connecting theory to practice. Tourism Geographies, DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2019.1696882

Cheer, J.M. (2020). Human flourishing, tourism transformation and COVID-19: A conceptual touchstone. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 514-524.

Djabarouti, J. (2020). Stories of feelings and things: Intangible heritage from within the built heritage paradigm in the UK. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 27(4), 391-406.

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Frost, W., Frost, J., Strickland, P., & Smith Maguire, J. (2020). Seeking a competitive advantage in wine tourism: Heritage and storytelling at the cellar-door. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 87, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102460

Guest, K. (2021). Heritage and the Pandemic: An early response to the restrictions of COVID-19 by the heritage sector in England. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, 12(1), 4-18.

Haanpää, R., Puolamäki, L., & Karhunen, E. (2019). Local conservation and perceptions of heritage in Old Rauma World Heritage Site. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 25(8), 837-855.

Higgins-Desbiolles, F., Carnicelli, S., Krolikowski, C., Wijesinghe, G., & Boluk, K. (2019). Degrowing tourism: Rethinking tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(12), 1926-944.

Landorf, C. (2009). Managing for sustainable tourism: A review of six cultural world heritage sites. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(1), 53–70.

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Muler Gonzalez, V., Coromina, L., & Gali, N. (2018). Overtourism: residents’ perceptions of tourism impact as an indicator of resident social carrying capacity-case study of a Spanish heritage town. Tourism Review, 73(3), 277-296.

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Poria, Y., Reichel, A., & Cohen, R. (2011). World heritage site – is it an effective brand name? A case study of a religious heritage site. Journal of Travel Research, 50(5), 482-495.

Ryan, J., & Silvanto, S. (2010). World heritage sites: The purposes and politics of destination branding. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(5), 533-545.

Santa-Cruz, F.G., & López-Guzmán, T. (2017). Culture, tourism and world heritage sites. Tourism Management Perspectives, 24, 111-116.

Seraphin, H., Sheeran, P., & Pilato, M. (2018). Over-tourism and the fall of Venice as a destination. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9, 374-376.

Silberman, N.A. (2020). Good-bye to all that: COVID-19 and the transformations of cultural heritage. International Journal of Cultural Property, 27(4), 467-475.

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Zhao, G., Deng, Z., Shen, J., Ryan, C., & Gong, J. (2018). Carrying capacity and its implications in a Chinese ancient village: The case of Hongcun. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(3), 260-280.

Zwain, A. (2021). George Town Heritage City traditional shophouses residents respond to COVID-19 pandemic: Issues and possible solutions. Journal of Human Behaviour in the Social Environment, 31(1-4), 394-408.


Tourism is one of the largest segments of the service industry. Over the years employee turnover has become a part of the tourism industry’s challenge to attract and retain new workforce. This paper explained the turnover issues of employees related to the travel agents and tour operators of Pune, a major commercial city in the State of Maharashtra in India. For this,417 employees were selected randomly from the approved Travel Agencies/Tour Operator Companies of Ministry of Tourism (MOT), International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Travel Agents Association of India (TAAI). Using SPSS, Under Factor Analysis, Principal Component Analysis method was implemented for the Dimension Reduction and Identification of the Significant Factors for turnover of employees. Results shows that training and team work, monetary issues & promotion, job hopping and lack of loyalty were the common factors perceived by the employees for their turnover. Suggestions are given to curb the turnover issues and retain performing employees.


Aravind, A. (2019, April 11). The biggest challenge for travel operators will be new innovations, AI & Augmented Reality. Tourism News Live, Retrieved from http://www.tourismnewslive.com/2019/04/11/the-biggest-challenge-for-travel-operators-will-be-new-innovations-ai-augmented-reality/

Bagri, S. C., Babu, S. &Kukreti, M. (2010). Human Resource Practices in Hotels: A Study from the Tourist State of Uttrakhand, India. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 9 (3), 286-299.
Biwal, A., &Roday, S. (2013). An Analysis of the Retention Issues in Tourism Industry with Special Reference to Travel Agencies in Pune. In M. Sawant & R+9 Ragde, Contemporary Tourism Planning: Introspecting Problems and Prospects (1st ed., pp. 157-172). New Delhi: Excel India Publishers.

Cetinel, F., Yolal, M., &Emeksiz, M. (2008). Human Resource Management in Small and Medium Sized Hotels in Turkey. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 8 (1), 43-63. Doi: 10.1080/15332840802274437

Chalkiti, K., &Sigala, M. (2010).Staff turnover in the Greek tourism industry. International Journal Of Contemporary Hospitality Management22(3), 335-359. doi: 10.1108/09596111011035945

Choi, Y., & Dickson, D. (2009). A Case Study into the Benefits of Management Training Programs: Impacts on Hotel Employee Turnover and Satisfaction Level. Journal Of Human Resources In Hospitality & Tourism9(1), 103-116. doi: 10.1080/15332840903336499

Davidson, M., Timo, N., & Wang, Y. (2010). How much does labour turnover cost?. International Journal Of Contemporary Hospitality Management22(4), 451-466. doi: 10.1108/09596111011042686

Garg, A.& Sangaran, G. (2012). Magnetizing and Retaining the Finest Talent in Hospitality Sector, An Empirical Study of Determinants of Job Satisfaction and Effects on Employee Turnover in the Hotels of Kuala Lumpur City Centre. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Systems, 5(2) 1-8. Retrieved from http://www.publishingindia.com

Giri, S., & Gayatri, Y. (2018). AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON EMPLOYEE RETENTION. International Journal Of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research(IJAMSR)1(2), 8-14.

Gruescu, R., Nanu, R., &Pirvu, G. (2008). Human Resource Management in the Tourism Industry. BULLETIN OF UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND VETERINARY MEDICINE CLUJ-NAPOCA. VETERINARY MEDICINE65(2), 168-173.

Gupta, A. (2016, February 10). Outbound travel industry grows, but challenges remain. The Economic Times, Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/services/travel/outbound-travel-industry-grows-but-challenges-remain/articleshow/50926441.cms

Gupta, N. (2013). A Study of Employee Retention with Special Reference to Indian Tourism Industry, European Academic Research, 1 (6), 996-1012. Retrieved from www.Euacademic.Org

Jain, S. (2020). Factual state of the travel fraternity! – Tourism Breaking News. Retrieved 24 April 2020, from https://tourismbreakingnews.com/factual-state-of-the-travel-fraternity/

Jose, V. (2015). Employee Turnover Rate in Indian Hospitality Industry with Focus on Hotels in the State Of Kerala (Masters Dissertation, Dublin Business School, Dublin, Ireland). Retrieved from https://esource.dbs.ie/bitstream/handle/10788/2869/mba_vimal_j_2015.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Kim, N. (2012). Employee Turnover Intention among Newcomers in Travel Industry. International Journal Of Tourism Research16(1), 56-64. doi: 10.1002/jtr.1898

Madera, J., Dawson, M., Guchait, P. a &Belarmino, A., 2017. Strategic human resources management research in hospitality and tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(1), pp.48-67.

Maier, T. (2011). Hospitality Leadership Implications: Multigenerational Perceptions of Dissatisfaction and Intent to Leave. Journal Of Human Resources In Hospitality & Tourism10(4), 354-371. doi: 10.1080/15332845.2011.588503

Mbah, P., Ekechukwu, C., & Obi, I. (2018). An Exploration of the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Turnover Intentions of Selected Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in South-East. International Journal Of Academic Research In Business And Social Sciences8(5). doi: 10.6007/ijarbss/v8-i5/4158

Mintah P. V., Commey, V., &Kuuder C. J. W. (2015). Factors accounting for labour turnover in the hospitality industry in Sunyani Municipality, Ghana.  African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 4(2).

Musa, B., Ahmed, I., &Bala, A. (2014). Effect of Motivational Incentives on Staff Turnover in Hotel Industry in Gombe State. IOSR Journal Of Business And Management16(3), 36-42. doi: 10.9790/487x-16333642

Pang, L., Kucukusta, D. and Chan, X., 2014. Employee Turnover Intention in Travel Agencies: Analysis of Controllable and Uncontrollable Factors. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(6), pp.577-590.

Phillips, J., & Connell, A. (2003). Managing employee retention (1st ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann.

Ragde, R. (2019). World Tourism Day Celebration. Keynote, Department of Tourism, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, India.

Sawant, M. (2019). Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism industry. Keynote, Ajeenkya DY Patil University, School of Hotel Management, Pune

Self, J., & Dewald, B. (2011). Why Do Employees Stay? A Qualitative Exploration of Employee Tenure. International Journal Of Hospitality & Tourism Administration12(1), 60-72. doi: 10.1080/15256480.2011.540982

Tomar, R., &Tomar, D. (2013). Measuring Foreign Traveler’s Satisfaction with Traveling Agencies in India. IOSR Journal Of Business And Management12(1), 26-32. doi: 10.9790/487x-1212632

Tracey, J., &Hinkin, T. (2008). Contextual Factors and Cost Profiles Associated with Employee Turnover. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly49(1), 12-27. doi: 10.1177/0010880407310191

Walsh, K., & Taylor, M.S. (2007). Developing In-house Careers and Retaining Management Talent: What Hospitality Professionals want from their Jobs. Cornell Hotel, Restaurant & Administrative Quarterly, 48 (2), 163-210.

Watson, S. (2008). Where are we now? A Review of Management development issues in the hospitality sector: Implications for talent management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20 (7), 758-80.

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Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly present in the hospitality industry. While on the one hand it is explicitly used to automate or improve the efficiency of tourism services, through robotics and chatbots, on the other hand it is crucial to increase sales margins on the web. In particular, AI-driven marketing becomes the main tool in the construction of each tourist’s imagination in the preparatory phase (before choosing the destination) and in the reflective phase (after returning from the trip). Inspired by literature from other industries, this research aims to predict what the ethical risks of using AI in tourism might be. Two main risks can be identified: the creation of a monothematic imagery of the tourist and the risk of radicalisation of tourism destinations.


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The act of visiting disaster sites by non-locals is often controversial, such as the promotion of so-called dark tourism or post-disaster tourism. After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Nuclear Disaster, the affected communities in Northeast Japan encouraged travel to the disaster sites as a way to support the region financially and pass on lessons learned in the disaster for disaster mitigation. This paper discusses how the promotion of post-disaster tourism through novel brands such as “Bosai (disaster mitigation) Tourism” or “Hope Tourism,” conversely emphasizes the positive aspects of disaster-related tourism rather than the “dark” or negative aspects. Drawing on ethnographic field research, analyses of tour descriptions and contents on websites offered by national and prefectural disaster tourism, participant observation at disaster tours, and interviews with local community members and tour organizers, this paper discusses the framing as well as the potential benefits of disaster-related tourism for local recovery and disaster mitigation, while exploring the challenges and burdens this form of tourism may inflict on the local communities. We argue that, despite the ethical challenges dark tourism may generate, confronting tragedies through dark or post-disaster tourism encourages visitors to connect with uncomfortable pasts, potentially helping to prevent similar tragedies from recurring as a result.


Araki Y., Hokugo A., Masuda S. (2017) The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Lessons for Land Use. In: Banba M., Shaw R. (eds) Land Use Management in Disaster Risk Reduction. Disaster Risk Reduction (Methods, Approaches and Practices). Springer, Tokyo. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-56442-3_18

Bird, G. R. (2013). Place identities in the Normandy landscape of war: touring the Canadian sites of memory. White, L. & Frew E. Dark Tourism and Place Identity. Managing and interpreting dark places. Routledge. New York, pp. 167-185

Boret, S. P. and Shibayama,A. (2017). The Roles of Monuments for the Dead during the Aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.09.021

Bornmann, N. (2018). The ethics of teaching at sites of violence and trauma. Student Encounters with the Holocaust. Palgrave Pivot. New York.

Buda, D.M. and McIntosh, A.J. (2013), “Dark tourism and voyeurism: tourist arrested for “spying” in Iran”, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 7(3), pp. 214-226. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-07-2012-0059

Carr, G. (2017). A culturally constructed darkness: dark legacies and dark heritage in the Channel Islands. Lennon, J.J & Hooper, G. Dark Tourism. Practice and interpretation. Routledge. New York, pp. 96-107.

Cochrane, F. (2015). The Paradox of Conflict Tourism: The Commodfication of War or Conflict Transformationin Practice? The Brown Journal of World Affairs 22(1), pp. 51-69

Edmondson, J. (2018). Death and the Tourist: Dark Encounters in Mid-Nineteenth-Century London via the Paris Morgue. Stone, P.R., Hartmann, R., Seaton, T., Sharpley, R. & White, L. The Palgrave Handbook of Dark Tourism Studies. Palgrave Macmillan. London, pp. 77 – 102.

De Antoni, A. (2017). Lust for Death: Dark Tourism, Creation and Consumption of Haunted Places in Contemporary Kyoto. De Antoni, A. & Raveri, M.(eds.). Death and Desire in Contemporary Japan: Representing, Practicing, Performing. Ca’ Foscari University Press. Venice, pp.1-22.

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The article aimed to show which of the restrictions and limitations imposed in connection with the pandemic were the most burdensome for the participants of nautical tourism. It presents the opinions of 580 sailors from six countries: Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Turkey. Research has shown that in the 2020 sailing season, sailors have observed many changes in the functioning of the ports, the services available in their area, and the behavior of other sailors. The restrictions introduced by some countries were sometimes very troublesome for tourists - they forced them to change their previous plans and caused a feeling of uncertainty. Among the most burdensome, the respondents considered those that restricted the free crossing of borders. The obtained results are essential for developing nautical tourism and may contribute to rationalizing decisions taken in a crisis.


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This paper explores the theoretical background of low cost air carriers’ operation using the theory of service management as well as service marketing. The operation strategies of low cost air carriers are examined from the point of their service operation structure as well as their strategies to achieve customer satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to explore how low-cost air carriers can achieve customer satisfaction despite their low-cost operation and the problems they may face. This paper consists of 5 sections. Following the introduction, the customer segment of low cost air carrier is described from the market research by JTB Tourism Research and Co. in the late 2010s. Then, previous researches are reviewed from the point of the structure of the operation, response to the uncertainty caused by the diversity of customer needs, the relationship between price and quality as well as Expectation Confirmation Theory. Following the literature review, the theories and models discussed in the previous section are applied to the case of a typical LCC to verify the theories and models in the previous research as well as to explore the findings from the actual case. In this section, cost reductions by LCCs are discussed by each structure of service operation (backyard, front and service-encounter). Also, the customer satisfaction of LCC is discussed by applying the Expectation Confirmation Theory. In the last section, the findings in the previous section and further problems of the low-cost air carriers’ operation are described.


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