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JOURNAL OF EURO ASIA TOURISM STUDIES

VOLUME I – December 2019
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Religious Tourism as a Factor in the Development of the Territory of Fátima – from the Island of Sicily to Fátima

December 2020

Introduction

The World Tourism Organization (WTO), through the Secretary-General, Taleb Rifai, considers that the “Religious tourism can be one of the most effective tools to promote inclusive and sustainable development “(Rifai, 2015). Religious tourism assumes, itself, as the main product of all destinations that have sanctuaries. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima presents itself as the largest European Marian sanctuary in the world. In 1947, the authorities of the Sanctuary of Fátima created the Pilgrim Image of Our Lady de Fátima. This image make a reverse movement of the traditional pilgrimages, visiting the people in their own territories, fostering, latter, if they go to the Sanctuary of Fátima. Since the creation of the Pilgrim Image, there has been an increase in the flow of visitors to the Sanctuary, coming from the places of these pilgrimages (Heitor, 2019). Due to the growing demand for this destination, new challenges arise in terms of development of this territory, with part of this demand arising due to the passage of the pilgrim image elsewhere.

This study aims to assess whether the incursions of the pilgrim image on the island of Sicily, generate, or not, motivations in the populations, leading them to visit the Sanctuary of Fátima. Considering that religious tourism and pilgrimage are motivating elements for the movement of people (Griffi & Raj, 2017), we analyse the flows of visitors from the island of Sicilia for the development of the territory of Fátima.

Methodologically, we analyse the travels of pilgrim images on the island of Sicily and the registers of pilgrims from the parishes of this island in the Sanctuary of Fátima, during the period 2010-2019. We use the registers of the authorities of the Sanctuary related to the pilgrim images and the organized groups that integrate the religious ceremonies of the Sanctuary, because they are the only registers that exist. In this way, we validate the reliability of the information and the objective intention of those who integrate these groups. Analysing the number of groups that comes to Fátima from many countries, after the passage of the pilgrim image, we found many groups that come from Sicilia. This study investigates the number of days they pass in this city and the period of the year, they come, establishing its importance to the development of the territory, as international visitors. Through these data we support the investigation, looking for useful information that allow to trigger other analyses (Quivy & Campenhoudt, 2008), which, in this case, allow support the present study.

Pilgrimage, Religious Tourism and development territorial

 From pilgrimage to religious tourism

The pilgrimage arrogates a phenomenon of a spiritual nature, representing Man’s approach to God, allowing the pilgrim’s baptismal renewal, by exposing his weaknesses, by challenging his physical strengths, justifying sacrifice, in a process of reconciliation with divine strength (Heitor, 2019).

As the experience of faith materializes in places where believers feel they are closer to their divinities, the sanctuaries assume themselves as places that invite people to wander in their direction, to visit them and to establish an individual encounter, in the connection between heaven and earth, motivating, tendently, the devotees to these places (Eliade, 1999; Di Giovine and Elsner, 2015; Griffin & Razaq, 2017).

Constituting religious motivation as the main cause that leads a person to leave home, making trips driven by faith, fuelled by belief, looking for answers and inner reflections, pilgrimage is assumed to be “a universal phenomenon and of all religions”, which expresses “a time of strong spirituality, a transition from the ephemeral to the real, from death to life, from man to divinity” (Dantas, 2007, p. 93).

For Tomljenović & Dukić, 2017 the pilgrimage can be defined as a replacement of the profane through spiritual life, with individuals interconnecting with other pilgrims (Smith, 2013). Presently, places, forms and desires for pilgrimage are multiplying “not only to satisfy the appetite for novelty”, nor for the pleasure of joy and the delight of the beautiful, but with the objective of “re-inscribing the unity of the human being walking through, arriving, leaving, always beyond afterlife” (Lima, 2009, p. 411).

In addition to the traditional religious pilgrimage (Ross, 2010), there is a new pilgrimage, “not necessarily related to religion”, with the “traveller” looking for “spiritual transformation through experience, learning new and different things” (Tomljenović & Dukić, 2017, p. 6).

In this way, pilgrimages became the genesis of religious tourism. However, religious tourism and pilgrimage are distinguished. “In all religions, pilgrimages have always been high points for obtaining the expression of faith”, even throughout what human history tells us, with people leaving their homes and walking, becoming pilgrims, returning the house with “somehow, a new identity” (Padilha, 1993, p. 14). As such, Dantas (2007, p. 93) puts the focus on the pilgrim by arguing, “every pilgrim is or can be, at the same a tourist, but a tourist is not a pilgrim”.

Religious tourism had its origin as a designation when it was used by “tourism agents and many elements of the Church to characterize movements that combine tourism and religion”, where the “main motivation is based on the assets of the Church (whether material or spiritual)” (Tomljenović & Dukić, 2017, p. 1).

Religious tourism is being a new form of religious mobility, distinct from the pilgrimage that nevertheless assumes a form of tourist mobility. Indeed, tourists with sacred and profane motivations visit thousands of places that have an important artistic and architectural legacy, resulting from the existence of religions and beliefs (Dias, 2010).

According to Heitor (2019, p. 64) religious tourism comes from motivated tourist activities by spiritual search and religious practice in places that are related to official religions, these range from the oriental, Afro-Brazilian, Spiritistic, Protestant, Catholic origin. These religions support religious practice through “rituals and the priesthood, in churches, in temples and in places of worship”. With the movement of people to these places, we can consider that it is through the understanding of their motivations for traveling that we understand classifying if they are or not religious tourists.

From a more general point of view, it is consensual to say that this product covers all types of trips that the individual makes, having as its main motivation religion, the final destination a religious place (Souza and Corrêa, 2000; Ray & Morpeht, 2007; Santos, 2008; Durán-Sánchez, 2018).

It should also be noted that according to Griffin & Raj (2017) during the tourism conference religious event of WTO, in Fatima, in 2017, a new vision emerged about the growing recognition of the religious tourism, as an integral part of the tourism sector, in particular, by national and international agencies. However, the authors warn the need for agencies, organizations, academics and websites starting to get information about visitors/tourists, but also, about the experiences they offer, so that it is possible to begin to completely understand and evaluate the dimension of this tourist genre, such as understanding what are the most wanted forms of travel. The recognition by the OMT of the lack of data or studies reveals that it is important to study the territories that receive religious tourists.

 

 Religious tourism in territorial development

The development of many territories resulted from its attractiveness as a tourist destination with religious component covered by pilgrims. Beyond faith, what attracts the most tourists in terms of heritage is “the fact that the buildings are sacred sites” (Antunes, 2016, p. 275). The offer made available in sanctuaries, monasteries and organizations based in sanctuary cities, such as “prayer, liturgy, spiritual conversations, creative workshops, contemplation, meditation and spiritual practices” (Tomljenović & Dukić, 2017, p. 5) alongside spiritual retreats, which foster and enable people’s personal development, combining well-being and spirituality (Heitor, 2019).

However, by relating the development of the Fátima territories to the tourist activity, it becomes vital to explain how it is understood by the OMT (2003). It is imperative to take into account a model economic development that allows improvement of the quality of life of hostesses communities; improvement of the quality of life with economic and social benefits not only for residents, but also for companies, leading to the promotion of high quality in the visitor experience; maintaining the quality of the environment on which not only the hostess community depends, but also the visitor; ensuring equitable distribution of both benefits and costs; encouraging understanding of the impacts of tourism on the cultural, human and material environment; improving health and social infrastructure.

Sachs (1993) indicates that sustainable development must be implemented by a methodology of planning, and should be based on the following principles: social sustainability (based on the establishment of a development process that leads to a standard growth, with a reduction in current social differences), cultural sustainability (consolidated in the need to look for local solutions through the potential of the specific cultures, taking into account the cultural identity and the local way of life, as well as the participation of the population in decision-making processes and in the formulation of development), ecological sustainability (supported by the theory that sustainable development tourism should limit the consumption of natural resources, and cause little damage to life sustainment systems), economic sustainability (enabling economic growth for current generations, as well as the responsible handling of natural resources that should have the role of meeting the needs of future generations), spatial sustainability (based on more balanced geographical distribution of tourist settlements in order to avoid exceeding the carrying capacity), political sustainability (based on the negotiation of the diversity of interests involved in fundamental issues ranging from local to global).

From the perspective of local development through tourism, at the level of economic sustainability Clarke & Raffaf (2015) consider that it is important to sell local products, thus promoting shape the development of the local economy.

In Fátima, the Sanctuary is the main “pole of attraction for large human masses and boosting of the local and regional economy” (Prazeres & Carvalho, 2015, p. 1146), sustaining most of the economic activities that are interconnected with religious offerings and with the touristic development. The Sanctuary of Fátima and the respective flow of visitors to this location dictate the subsistence of the commercial activity, the social development of the parish and the municipality (Prazeres & Carvalho, 2015, p. 1146). Aware of this reality, their managers have advocated policies for the loyalty of pilgrims and tourists to the place, conserving, simultaneously, its identity (Heitor, 2019).

Fátima assumed itself as a center of gravity of urban nature through the power of initiative and of attraction for the religious and spiritual component. This explains why we found in Fatima several religious institutes and congregations. At present and according to Leiria/Fátima Diocese, there are 88 diocesans, social, schools, catholic congregations and structures. From this number, 66 institutes and congregations have religious and spiritual component of this territory. “The emergence of three schools: the Centro de Estudos de Fátima, Colégio São Miguel and Colégio Sagrado Coração de Maria, resulted from the religious initiative, obtained adherence by the resident population in this locality, but also from people from other parishes in the municipality of Ourém as well as other neighbors” (Heitor, 2019, p.81). These three schools have been attended, during the last four decades, by thousands of students from the municipalities of Ourém, Alcanena, Batalha, Leiria, Alvaiázere, Ansião, Porto de Mós. The expansion of the Professional School of Ourém to Fátima, through the School of Hospitality of Fátima, highlighted the dynamics of territorial development “as response to the training needs of human resources for the existing hotel and tourism offer” (Heitor, 2019, p.82).

This territorial dynamic occurred “due to the growing internationalization of the religious offer and of the economic agents, in the context of globalization”. Fatima’s attractiveness in the international dimension became fundamental for the economic sustainability, through the presence of visitors along the year. It is justified in this way that “a Sanctuary in a country with just over 10 million inhabitants, in a city of around 13 thousand inhabitants, peripheral in relation to Europe” attracts, according to the “regional tourism entity of the Center, more than 5 million visitors per year” (Heitor, 2019, p.83).

Today we know that Fátima is visited by pilgrims, religious or spiritual tourists, moved by cultural or patrimonial issues (Heitor, 2019). But we don’t know the needs of those who visit Fátima. To enhance the dimension of Fatima in the world, to develop the economy and the religious services, to response to the necessities of pilgrims and tourists that visit the city and go to the Sanctuary, it is necessary to obtain statistical data refer to the origin of people, their motivations and other set of information that allows to structure the offer and develop the territory. This is a fundamental tool for religious authorities, for the commercial sector and for public entities.

The position of the pilgrim image to the territorial development

Fátima is a place with greater demand by pilgrims and visitors of the so-called religious tourism. It is important to contextualize its significance to the geographical space that the present analysis alludes – the Sanctuary of Fátima. The pilgrimages took place from the beginning, around the image of Our Lady, throughout the year, with special focus between the months of May to October (period in the apparitions are celebrated), calling themselves anniversary pilgrimages, occurring on the 12th and 13th of these six months (referring to the six apparitions).

Fátima is pilgrim and represents the pilgrimage that is celebrated in the faith itself and/or in the spiritual objectives that the pilgrim takes on when disconnecting from the profane world, establishing a silent connection with its religious icon and with himself, in a process of reflection, meditation and prayer (Heitor, 2019).

As a religious tourism destination, Fátima comes from the called Marian apparitions, which constituted as manifestations of the extraordinary plan, sending the subject to the experience of the religious as a spiritual manifestation.

On the 13 of May, of 1947 the authorities of the Sanctuary authorized the creation of the pilgrim image of Our Lady of Fátima. The first itinerary carried out by the pilgrim image began, through Europe, after the World War II, to Maastricht (Holland). This pilgrimage caused a greater impact in the territories, and generated many requests from various locations (parishes, dioceses, archdioceses and Marian movements) for the image of Our Lady of Fátima could visit then. With the growth of these requests coming from the most diverse locations in the world, the Sanctuary authorities had the need to create replicas from the original pilgrim image. From that date until today, there are 12 pilgrim images on constantly pilgrimage in different countries in the world, in close articulation with the parishes and dioceses of the respective territories.

This image carries the message, the cult and the history of Fátima, in a process of growing internationalization in each place where she goes. It is in this way that Fatima asserts itself as the center of a system of global virtual flows, which transcend its inhabitants, its visitors, expanding its space of influence in successive levels of integration and diffusion, continuous, in the places where it passes. In this sense, as Heitor (2019) wrote, the passage of the pilgrim image it is assumed as a “visiting card” that invite pilgrims to visit the place where it is originally: the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima.

Analysis and discussion of results

In the last decades, throughout Italy and in the island of Sicily there have been several journeys of the pilgrim images of Our Lady of Fátima. Analysing only the image paths on the island of Sicily, we found that among 2010 to 2019 they circulated in the Diocese of Palermo and in the Parishes of Ragusa, Siracussa, Messina, Catania, Trapana, Agrigento, Mazara del Vallo and Caltanissetta. Establishing the relationship between pilgrimage on this island, along the years, and the consequent return to Fátima, through data of the Santuary, which are the only registers that exist in terms of visitors to this tourist destination, we found 122 direct relationships, highlighting in this work only a few examples.

In these ten years, three images have been on the island of Sicily: image number 8 (between 2010 and 2014) and images number 13 and 6 (between 2015 and 2019).  Crossing the period of the visit of the pilgrim image number 8 and the presence of organized groups of this origins in the Sanctuary of Fátima we find that in 2010, six months after the passage of the image in the Diocese of Palermo, for five days, there was a visit of fifty-two people, from this diocese, to the Sanctuary, with subsequent returns, between 2012 and 2015, with a hundred and twenty; fifty; twenty nine and twenty four people, respectively. Twelve months after passage of the image in the Parish of Messina, for three days, fifty-six people, from this parish, visited this city, with subsequent returns in 2012, 2013, 2014, with thirty-five, thirty-four and forty people, correspondingly. Eleven months after passing the Trapana Parish, for four days, fifty-five people, from this place, were in Fátima, with subsequent returns in 2012 and 2014, with forty-four and nineteen people, correspondingly. Twelve months after visiting the Caltanissetta Parish for three days, there was a visit of forty-five people, from this place, to this city, with returns later in 2012 and 2013, with fifty-twenty-two people, respectively.

Crossing the period of the visit of the pilgrim image number 13, between March and July 2015, and the pilgrim image number 6, in June 2016, on the island of Sicily, and the presence of groups organized from these origins in the Sanctuary of Fátima we find fifty-six direct relationships, highlighting, some examples.

In 2015, twelve months after the image passed through the Diocese of Palermo, for seven days, a visit of twenty-four people, from this diocese, to the Sanctuary, with returns later, between 2015 and 2019, with twenty-two; twenty; twenty-nine; eighty; eighty; forty seven; forty-four; thirty-five; forty-five; forty-five; thirty-five; forty; twenty-five; forty-sixty-six people, respectively. Only from this Diocese, between 2016 and 2019, there were six hundred and seventy-seven people, in organized groups, after the passages of the pilgrim images. Fourteen months after the image passed through the Parish of Messina, for seven days, twenty-three people from this parish visited this city, with subsequent returns in 2017, with sixty; thirty-seven; thirty-five; thirty-four and forty people, correspondingly.

Twelve months after passing the Catania Parish, for seven days, forty-five people, from this place, were in Fátima, with subsequent returns between 2017 and 2019, with fifty-seven; twenty-seven; thirty-two; twenty-one; sixty-five; thirty-four; forty and five; twelve; one hundred; forty-three; twenty-four; sixty-two; fifty-one; sixty and nine; forty-six; thirty-seven; one hundred; forty-one; fifty; sixty-one; twenty; sixteen and thirty people. From this parish alone, between 2016 and 2019, there were a thousand and forty-three people. Eleven months after passing through the Parish of Trapana for three days, forty people, from this place, were in Fátima, with later returns in 2017, with fifty-thirteen people.

In the analysis carried out, we find that the visits tend to occur, eight to twelve months after the passage in the pilgrim image. The level of permanence of these groups in Fátima, in the last ten years stands at 5.43 nights, more than doubling the average for this tourist destination. Since 2015 there has been a substantial increase in the number of nights and people from the Sicilian island in Fatima. Interestingly, visits do not follow the overwhelming trend of the Fátima visitor, which is concentrated in the months of May and October, occurring more in June, July and August, although there are records in other months of the year.

However, despite the existing demand after the passage of the pilgrim image, the data obtained makes it possible to understand that the relationship between the image and visitation to the Sanctuary is still at an early stage, at the level of demand. Since the total number of visits during the study period was 4684 people, it does not allow an assessment of the several dimensions of sustainability proposed by Sachs (1993) the social, cultural, ecological, spatial, political, only allowing analyse economic sustainability.

Conclusions

From the apparitions of Our Lady to the three little shepherds, the territory of Fátima developed its identity as a religious tourism destination. In an initial phase, there were no tourist support services or organized promotion as a tourist product. Over the years and in the last decades there has been a change in the hotel offer and in the provision of services related to this tourist destination.

Fátima asserted herself in the world through the image of Our Lady. When starting a process of symbolic mobility and with high adhesion on the part of people, the creation of the Pilgrim Image of Our Lady of Fátima was a novelty of the religious ideology worldwide. The Sanctuary considered that it would make sense to send the pilgrim image to several parishes. This dynamic generated the creation of several routes of those images.

Creating a motivation for the dislocation of people from the island of Sicily to the Sanctuary of Fátima, after having attended ceremonies with the pilgrim image, proving the strength of the image and its dimension. When generating these wishes, by motivating the movement of people from foreign countries to the Sanctuary, the image pilgrim fulfils her mission with her audience.

We identified the images that visited the island of Sicily (numbers 8, 13 and 6), as well as the respective parishes and proceeded to the analysis of the Sicilians groups who visited Fátima, after the passage of the pilgrim images on this island, between the years 2010 to 2019, to establish the proper connection.

In the correspondences found and marked, it is confirmed that there is a direct relationship between the passage of the pilgrim image and a subsequent groups that visit Fátima. In total 4684 people arrived in Fátima, in groups, from the island of Sicily, between 2011 and 2019. An average of 520 people per year with a stay ranging from one to eight days. The average of 520 per year people moving from the island of Sicily to Fátima, for religious and spiritual reasons, embodied in the phenomenon of religious tourism, alone represents a high number of visitors considering its geographical origin and population density. However, it is in the number of days and nights that these numbers gain relevance and added dimension, in view of the high permanence in the accommodation units and in periods of the year when the affluence to the Sanctuary of Fátima is tinier: November, December, January and February.

In this sense, organized groups from the island of Sicily contribute directly to local development, through the religious component, with positive effects on economic activity, on the dialectics itself of the structures that constitute the tourist offer of Fátima and in the development of the territory by conjugation of all these elements.

Appendix

Percursos Imagem Peregrina Grupos Registados no Santuário de Fátima
Data/Dias Imagem Localidade País Data/Dias Número pessoas Paróquias Localidade País
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 23/27 maio 2011 18 Paróquia Mª S. Immacolata Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 23/27 maio 2011 18 Paróquia Mª Sta Immacolata Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 24/26 junho 2011 44 S. Antonio Termini Palermo Itália
junho dezembro2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 27/31 agosto 2011 52 Paróquia S.Trinit Magione Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 22/24 setembro 42 Diocese de Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 27 julho 2012 120 Diocese de Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 25/27 junho 2013 50 Paróquia Sta Cristina – Gela Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 30 julho a 2 agosto 2013 44 Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 24/27 agosto 2013 40 Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 25/29 janeiro 2014 26 Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 7/10 julho 2014 22 Paróquia Montreal Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 25 julho a 28 julho 2014 55 Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 1/3 agosto 2014 29 Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 25/27 janeiro 2015 45 Carini Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 2/3 maio 2015 24 Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Diocese Palermo Itália 25 julho a 1 agosto 2015 24 Palermo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Ragusa Sicília Itália 12/19 agosto 2011 39 Ragusa Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Siracussa Sicília Itália 16/20 agosto 2011 30 Siracussa Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Siracussa Sicília Itália 18/19 julho 2014 25 Siracussa Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 5/7 julho 2011 56 Messina Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 13/15 julho 2011 40 Pompei Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 26 julho a 2 agosto 2011 43 Paróquia St Mª Catena e St Mª Visitazione Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 12/16 maio 2012 35 Messina Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 24/25 agosto 2012 51 Calabria Messina Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 12/16 maio 2013 34 Guido Messina Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 26/27 julho 2014 40 S. Nicola di Bari Madonna Pace Messina Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Messina Itália 21/25 agosto 2014 27 Santuário Ecce Homo Messina Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 19/22 julho 2011 46 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 19/21 julho 2011 20 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 19/23 julho 2011 40 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 22/26 julho 2011 25 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 22/26 julho 2011 128 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 26/28 julho 2011 18 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 26/29 julho 2011 20 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 19/22 julho 2011 33 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 29 julho a 2 agosto 2011 34 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 31 julho a 2 agosto 2011 42 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 9/16 julho 2013 44 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 24/25 julho 2013 32 Agesind Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 4/6 agosto 2013 30 San Antonio Padova Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 9/14 julho 2014 32 Paróquia Madonna di Fátima Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 15/22 julho 2014 35 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 15/18 julho 2014 38 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 25/29 julho 2014 20 Catania Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 5/8 agosto 2014 15 Oby Whan Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Catania Itália 23/27 agosto 2014 40 Madre S. Giovanni Battista La Punta Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Trapana Itália 31 maio a 3 junho 2011 55 Paróquia San Giuseppe di Alcamo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Trapana Itália 20/22 outubro 2011 44 Trapana Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Trapana Itália 18/20 fevereiro 2012 44 San Giovanni Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Trapana Itália 11/14 junho 2012 32 Paróquia Nª Sr.ª de Fátima de Trapana Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Trapana Itália 4 maio 2014 19 Alcamo, Trapana Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Agrigento Itália 18 agosto 2012 21 Agrigento Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Agrigento Itália 19/24 julho 2014 Agrigento Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Agrigento Itália 22/29 agosto 2014 33 Agrigento Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Mazara del Vallo Itália 3/5 junho 2015 23 Preghiera Alleati dei Piccoli di Petrosino Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Caltanissetta Itália 9/16 agosto 2011 36 Caltanissetta Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Caltanissetta Itália 17/19 agosto 2011 45 Paróquia S. Paulo Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Caltanissetta Itália 20/25 outubro 2012 50 Paróquia Santa Flavia Itália
junho dezembro 2010 Caltanissetta Itália 1/5 abril 2013 22 Caltanissetta Itália

 

março/julho 2015 13º Palermo Itália 02/03 maio 2015 34 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 13º Mazara del Vallo Itália 03/05 junho 2015 23 Mazara del Vallo Itália
março/julho 2015 13º Palermo Itália 25 julho a 01 agosto 2015 24 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 13º Messina Itália 11/17 setembro 2015 23 Messina Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º Palermo Itália 13/16 julho 2016 22 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º Catânia Itália 16/23 julho 2016 45 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º Siracusa Itália 22/24 julho 2016 27 Siracusa Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 28/30 julho 2016 57 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 13/19 agosto 2016 27 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Noto Itália 19/23 agosto 2016 40 Noto Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 20/27 agosto 2016 32 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 03/06 setembro 2016 21 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 15/18 fevereiro 2017 20 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 12/14 abril 2017 29 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Agrigento Itália 19/23 junho 2017 31 Agrigento Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Messina Itália 24/25 junho 2017 60 Messina Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Trapania Itália 03/05 julho 2017 40 Trapania Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 19/26 julho 2017 80 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 19/26 julho 2017 80 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 24/26 julho 2017 65 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Agrigento Itália 24/26 julho 2017 31 Agrigento Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 24/26 julho 2017 34 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 27/29 julho 2017 45 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 29 julho/05 agosto 2017 12 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 30 julho/02 agosto 2017 47 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 02/05 agosto 2017 100 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 09/15 agosto 2017 43 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 12/16 agosto 2017 24 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 16/19 agosto 2017 62 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 19/26 agosto 2017 51 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Messina Itália 20/23 agosto 2017 37 Messina Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 23/29 agosto 2017 69 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 26/30 agosto 2017 46 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 30 agosto/02 setembro 2017 37 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 06/09 setembro 2017 100 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Trapania Itália 12/16 setembro 2017 50 Trapania Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Trapania Itália 25/26 setembro 2017 13 Trapania Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Messina Itália 28/30 setembro 2017 20 Messina Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Agrigento Itália 18/21 outubro 2017 26 Agrigento Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 14/17 novembro 2017 44 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 11/15 junho 2018 41 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 25/28 janeiro 2018 35 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Mazara del Vallo Itália 06/09 abril 2018 40 Mazara del Vallo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 21/24 abril 2018 45 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 03/06 julho 2018 45 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Siracusa Itália 25/27 julho 2018 20 Siracusa Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Siracusa Itália 11/18 agosto 2018 40 Siracusa Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 18/25 agosto 2018 50 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 23/28 outubro 2018 35 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 23/26 setembro 2018 40 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 25/27 janeiro 2019 25 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Caltanissetta Itália 21/25 fevereiro 2019 35 Caltanissetta Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Mazara del Vallo Itália 12/13 maio 2019 50 Mazara del Vallo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Noto Itália 13/18 junho 2019 30 Noto Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Caltanissetta Itália 17/20 julho 2019 15 Caltanissetta Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 20/24 julho 2019 61 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 07/10 agosto 2019 20 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Siracusa Itália 10/17 agosto 2019 20 Siracusa Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 21/24 agosto 2019 16 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 02/05 setembro 2019 40 Palermo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Mazara del Vallo Itália 22/25 setembro 2019 25 Mazara del Vallo Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Catânia Itália 14/17 outubro 2019 30 Catânia Itália
março/julho 2015 junho 2016 13º   6º Palermo Itália 08/11 novembro 2019 66 Palermo Itália

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Cite this article

Caldeira Heitor J., Duarte E. (2020) Religious Tourism as a Factor in the Development of the Territory of Fátima – from the Island of Sicily to Fátima. EATSJ - Euro-Asia Tourism Studies Journal, Vol.1, Issue: December 2020 pp. 63-75.

Received: 27 July 2020 | Accepted: 3 December 2020 | Published online: 16 December 2020
Volume: 1 | Issue: December 2020 |

Authors


JC

João Caldeira Heitor
ISG, Lisboa, Portugal


ED

Eunice Duarte (Corresponding author)
ESCAD